What is Accounting?
Accounting generally refers to the handling of financial information and transactions as it pertains to businesses and individuals. This includes summarizing, analyzing, and reporting data to various oversight agencies, as well as computing, preparing, and ensuring taxes are paid properly and on time to collection entities. The resulting financial statements concisely summarize a company or person’s activities and monetary position for a specified period of time.
Individuals who enjoy mathematics and find examining financial statements for accuracy and compliance interesting are likely to find this type of work fulfilling. Additionally, there are many different specializations to choose from.
With the right training and education, you could be qualified to perform the following tasks:
- Cost Estimation
- Human Resources
- Project Management
- Risk Management
- Mergers and Acquisitions
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment for accountants and auditors is expected to increase by 4% from 2019 to 2029, which makes the job outlook for this field comparable to most other professions. Maintaining accurate financial records is essential for every type of business. This makes the knowledge and skills possessed by professionals in this field invaluable. The total growth for this sector is, however, closely linked to the overall health of the economy. Continued economic development will sustain the need for professionals capable of preparing and examining financial records.
Accounting Education in Alaska
While Alaska’s population is relatively low, the state still employed 2,480 accountants in 2020. This is comparable to other locations within the United States. Additionally, the annual mean wage offered to accounting professionals in Alaska was fairly high, coming in at $80,520. This is almost $7,000 higher than the national median.
As a result, it’s not surprising that Alaska has several notable academic programs available for individuals interested in pursuing a career in accounting. If you plan to pursue employment within this state, it’s particularly important to consider earning a degree locally. Local colleges and universities will offer the most relevant education, as they are more familiar with what potential employers in the area expect from graduates.
Accountants are responsible for preparing and examining financial records for businesses and individuals, as well as identifying potential areas of opportunity and risk. They also frequently offer possible solutions for monetary issues. While exact job responsibilities vary depending on the type of services offered and whether or not a specialization has been obtained, many professionals in this field have the knowledge and skills necessary to ensure financial statements are accurate and comply with all laws and regulations. Those working with taxes often calculate the amount owed, prepare forms, and ensure payments are made on time. Other common tasks include inspecting account books, organizing records, assessing financial operations, identifying risks and challenges, and suggesting ways to reduce costs.
The majority of professionals in this field work for accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, or payroll service companies. While they do exist, positions in finance and insurance, government, and management are far less common. Most accountants spend the majority of their time in offices, but some do work from home. Full-time employment is typical, but it’s not uncommon for these individuals to put in more than 40 hours a week during quarterly audits or tax season.
The skills most frequently utilized by accountants include:
- Math Skills
- Attention to Detail
- Analytical Thinking
There are many different types of positions to consider in the accounting field. It’s important to note, however, that nearly all employers require candidates to have, at minimum, a relevant bachelor’s degree. Because some financial services are highly specialized, an advanced degree or certificate may be necessary to qualify for positions that offer them. As you look for the right accounting program, you are likely to find offerings at the associate, bachelor, master, and doctoral levels. Each has benefits and drawbacks that may impact your academic and career goals; take time to consider your options carefully before selecting a program.
Associate Degree in Accounting (AS)
An associate degree in accounting is generally adequate to qualify graduates for some entry-level positions in the field. This includes bookkeepers, account collectors, and financial clerks. While some job growth in this sector is anticipated, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics also projects a decline in financial clerical roles due to an increase in automation. This could make it more difficult for individuals with associate degrees to find employment.
The majority of associate degree programs in accounting focus on introducing students to basic accounting methods and concepts. Every curriculum is different, but it is common to see courses in economics, finance, tax preparation, cost accounting, budgeting, and business management. Students are also likely to learn how to utilize various spreadsheet software programs.
Associate degrees in accounting usually consist of 60 credit hours of coursework and take full-time students approximately two years to complete.
The most accessible employment opportunities available after graduation include:
- Bill and Account Collector
- Financial Clerk
- Auditing Clerk
Many people choose to earn an associate degree in accounting as a steppingstone to admittance into an undergraduate program. Course credits from accredited colleges and universities can be transferred to four-year institutions, which can significantly decrease the amount of time it requires to earn a more advanced degree in the field.Learn more on UniversityHQ
Bachelor's Degree in Accounting (BS)
As previously stated, most employers expect accounting applicants to have a bachelor’s degree. This is because the skills necessary to perform many basic financial services require more time to cultivate. Earning an undergraduate degree will make finding a job in the public sector easier, will lead to more promotion opportunities, and will make gaining certain certifications possible.
While there is no standardized curriculum for undergraduate accounting programs, coursework generally covers fundamental concepts. These frequently include fraud examination, accounting, ethics, and tax reporting. Graduates should have the skills and knowledge necessary to perform the most common financial duties and adhere to legal and professional standards.
Most bachelor’s degree programs in accounting consist of 120 credit hours of coursework and take full-time students approximately four years to complete.
Job availability will vary, but some of the most common employment opportunities are:
- Budget Analyst
- Cost Estimator
- Tax Examiner
Students who desire to pursue advanced positions in accounting will need a bachelor’s degree before they can enroll in an advanced degree or postgraduate certification program.Learn more on UniversityHQ
Master's Degree in Accounting (MS or MC)
Individuals wishing to have greater responsibilities or to obtain management positions will need a master’s degree in accounting. At this level, students will dive deeper into the theory, practice, and principles of accounting. They will also learn more about various technologies available and further hone their leadership and communication skills. Graduates will be prepared to fill more advanced positions and are likely to earn higher salaries. This type of degree can also lead to more advancement opportunities.
Most master’s degree programs in accounting consist of 30 to 36 credit hours of coursework and take full-time students approximately one to one-and-a-half years to complete. Students are usually given the opportunity to select a concentration, which will lead to specialized training in an area of interest. Options may include public accounting, managerial accounting, and fraud examination.
Graduates often find jobs as:
- Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
- Financial Manager
- Personal Financial Advisor
- Accounting Manager
- Finance Director
It is possible to obtain some of the above-mentioned positions with a Master’s of Business Administration (MBA) rather than an accounting degree. While MBAs offer some of the same opportunities, this option allows students to choose from a variety of concentrations in addition to finance. Both educational paths can lead to top executive-level jobs.
Individuals planning to become a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) will need 150 credit hours of coursework. This is more than is necessary to earn a standard bachelor’s degree, which means most certification candidates opt to enroll in a master’s degree programs to complete the application’s education requirements.Learn more on UniversityHQ
PhD Degree in Accounting (PhD)
While a doctoral degree is not required for most low-to-mid-level jobs in accounting, earning one does provide a significant number of career opportunities. This type of education generally qualifies candidates for the highest-level positions available in academia, research, management, and policy.
In most cases, students working towards a doctorate degree will select a concentration in which to specialize. Every college and university is different, but some common options include public accounting, audit accounting, forensic accounting, managerial accounting, and accounting information systems. Programs usually consist of between 90 and 120 credit hours and take full-time students four to seven years to complete. Significant amounts of research and writing will be necessary.
Some of the most common career options after graduation include:
- Accounting Professor
- Chief Financial Officer
- Chief Executive Officer
- Financial Manager
CPA Exam Education Requirements in Alaska
The largest part of your CPA preparation is your education. If you are serious about becoming an accountant, you will need an accounting degree. Most universities offer an accounting degree program. You will want to have the strongest academic background you can possibly manage. Since Alaska has no residency requirements for its CPAs, you can freely pursue your accounting degree in another state. Alaska policy also allows aspiring CPAs to take their exam prior to completing an undergraduate degree in accounting, provided that you are only 18 semester or 27 quarter hours away from graduation and meet additional education requirements.
Nonetheless, Alaska does require that your transcripts reflect a certain curriculum. Students will need to complete an undergraduate degree with a major concentration based in Accounting and 150 total undergraduate or graduate credit hours. If you choose to pursue your accounting degree and CPA licensure as a student in an MBA program, you will likewise need to reflect a thorough overview of accounting coursework on your transcripts. In particular, the state board of accountancy requires that your academic record be comprised of:
24 semester hours in accounting at or above the intermediate level. Courses include:
- Start here with an Associate degree in Accounting
- Intermediate Accounting
- Accounting Principles
- Tax Accounting
- Government or Non-profit Accounting
- Theories in Accounting
- Fraud Detection
- Financial Accounting
- 3 hours of business law
- 3 hours of economics
- 3 hours of college level math or computer science
Since the CPA examination is one of the most difficult professional exams, you will likely want to take a CPA review courses or a preparation course which can cover general terms and total content or individual questions or sections of review. Alaska will acknowledge these courses and counts them towards your 150 semester hours. These courses must be taken for credit at an accredited institution. Commercial accounting courses might be helpful as reviews later on, but they cannot be taken to satisfy the Board's requirements to sit for the test.
Alaska acknowledges bachelor's degrees from out of state institutions, but the Board will want to see that your accounting degree comes from an accredited college or university.
Make sure that your accounting degree is certified by one of the following accreditation agencies:
- Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
- New England Association of Colleges and Schools
- North Central Association of Colleges and Schools
- Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities
- Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools
Taking the CPA Exam in Alaska
The exam CPA professionals take is provided by the AICPA, a national association that provides testing, education, and other resources to CPA candidates and practicing professionals. Your life as a CPA will likely include some interactions with this organization. Prior to taking the exam, the Alaska board asks that you satisfy the academic and other requirements to make sure you learn everything you need to earn a good score. As a baseline, the state does require that all CPAs be 19 years of age or older and of upstanding moral character.
To ensure the strongest possible application to the board, present them with a transcript that includes:
- 24 semester hours in accounting courses at or above the intermediate level
- 3 semester hours of business law that focus on the Uniform Commercial Code
- 3 semester hours in economics – your course should reflect your long-term professional goals
- 3 semester hours in mathematics, statistics, or computer science
Another option allows you to take the CPA exam with a bachelor's degree in accounting and at least one year of supervised experience with a licensed CPA. You will need more experience if your bachelor's degree in accounting does not include the necessary courses.
Once you have completed your bachelor's degree and a major concentration in Accounting, you are ready to apply to the board. Note that your bachelor's may still be in progress, but you must be within 18 semester or 27 quarter hours of graduation. First, complete an application for the Uniform Certified Public Accountant examination that you can download from the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA) website. If you find the provided information confusing, simply email the NASBA in order to clarify.
Along with a completed application, have your official transcripts sent from your educational institution to the Board. If you are relying on your supervised experience, provide the board with a signed, notarized letter that reflects:
- Your full name
- Your dates of employment
Detailed information reflecting your specific experience in areas such as:
- Financial Accounting
- Government Accountancy
- Implementing Control Systems
- Tax Accounting
- Letterhead from your employer
- Signature of your supervisor or their proxy (such as the HR supervisor)
Continuing Professional Education Requirements
In order to maintain your accounting license with the state of Alaska, you must continue to update your education with coursework and seminars. The state asks that you complete a minimum of 20 hours per year and a total of 80 hours every two years. At least four of the 80 continuing education hours must cover ethics and Alaska's statutes and regulations regarding accountancy.
There are many ways to achieve your CPE credits. You might enroll in for-credit classes from your local institution of higher education, including a community college. You could also take advantage of contemporary advances in education and take courses from colleges and universities online. In fact, you could take advantage of the CPE requirement and use that time to complete a master's degree in accounting or business. First make sure that the institution is fully accredited by a board-approved agency. In Alaska, one semester hour in a college course will count for 15 hours of CPE time.
You can also take courses through the AICPA, engage in an independent study course, publish books or articles, or teach a course yourself. Teaching or leading discussions can only count for a maximum of 30 CPE hours every two years.
Make sure that you fully account for your CPA time and energy by keeping complete records. If the course or lecture offers a CPE certificate, make sure you get that.
You will also need to take note of vital facts such as:
- Time/place of course
- Course sponsorship
- Proof of publication – for articles or books (valid URLs or ISBN numbers may suffice)
- Transcripts from educational institutions
Note that you will need to renew your license every two years and your CPE hours must be a part of that biennial renewal process.
Become an Accountant in Alaska
First and foremost, individuals considering an accounting career in Alaska should seriously consider their professional goals. Establishing attainable outcomes will help direct you to the best academic colleges capable of providing the necessary knowledge, skills, and training to succeed. Knowing your ultimate aspirations ensures you select the correct degree level and concentration.
Once you have completed the necessary educational requirements, you have the option of pursuing certifications and/or licensure. Some popular options include:
- Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA)
- Certified Financial Planner (CFP)
- Certified Management Accountant (CMA)
- Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
- Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst (CAIA)
- Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA)
- Chartered Financial Consultant (ChFC)
- Financial Risk Manager (FRM)
- Certified Government Financial Manager (CGFM)
- Chartered Global Management Accountant (CGMA)
The most frequently sought after license is Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Only accountants licensed as CPAs can file reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), a vital component of most mid-to-high-level positions in the field. This licensure demonstrates professional competence and instills client confidence.
CPA requirements vary slightly by state. In Alaska, first-time applicants must be of good moral characters, be at least 19 years old, and meet one of several academic achievements. All states require candidates to have a bachelor’s degree in accounting, but an additional 30 semester hours is also necessary. Additionally, CPAs must pass the national, four-part Uniform CPA Examination offered by the American Institute of the Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). All four sections must be completed within an 18 month period.
CPAs, as well as many other professionals with other accounting certifications, are also responsible for completing continuing education (CE) requirements. In order to maintain licensure, candidates must take additional courses on relevant accounting topics, including financial ethics. CE classes may be offered by state and national finance organizations and associations, as well as colleges and universities in Alaska.Learn more about Accountant's and CPA's
Top College Programs in Alaska for Accounting
While Alaska has one of the smallest state populations in the country, there are still plenty of opportunities to pursue a degree in accounting.
Some of the most prominent options include:
- University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA)
The University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) offers two accounting degree options: Associate of Applied Science (AAS) and Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA). The institution also offers an Occupational Endorsement Certificate (OEC) in bookkeeping. All three programs are intended to prepare students for careers in business, government, or other types of organizations. Graduates obtain real-world skills in analyzing financial information, computing taxes and preparing tax returns, designing data processing systems, and preparing budget reports/forecasts.
- University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF)
The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) offers a Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) degree in accounting for students interested in the fields of general accounting, auditing, managerial accounting, taxation, and government accounting. It is accredited by the Association of Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and seeks to provide a strong business background through an understanding of accounting. Graduates enjoy high CPA pass rates and an almost 100% job placement rate. UAF also offers a minor in accounting.
- Alaska Pacific University (APU)
Alaska Pacific University (APU) offers a few degree programs that may be of interest to prospective accounting students. While the school lacks a bachelor’s in accounting, it does have a Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Business Administration and anyone can add a minor in accounting. It also offers a Master of Business Administration (MBA) with a concentration in finance. Alternatively, students interested in completing their education faster can opt for an Associate of Arts (AA) in business administration, or a graduate studies in investment certificate program.
- University of Alaska Southeast (UAS)
The University of Alaska Southeast (UAS) offers both online and on-campus programs. The most relevant options available is the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) with an emphasis in accounting. The program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP) and seeks to prepare students for successful careers working with companies of every size. The institution also offers an Accounting Technician Certificate program.
Careers for Accounting Graduates
After earning an accounting degree, along with any necessary certifications and licensures, there are a wide variety of positions you may be qualified for. From entry-level jobs to careers in management, it is easy to find ways to apply this type of education in employment settings.
While salaries and responsibilities vary, some of the most common career options include:
- Financial Analyst
- Benefits Specialist
- Certified Professional Accountant (CPA)
- Accounts Payable / Accounts Receivable Specialist
- Budget Analyst
- Accounting Manager / Controller
- Accounting Professor
- Chief Financial Officer
- Chief Executive Officer
- Financial Manager
- Bill and Account Collector
- Financial Clerk
- Auditing Clerk
- Financial Analyst:
Financial analysts are responsible carefully studying marketplace trends in order to help corporations and business make smart investments. They often provide advice regarding bonds, stock splits, and other potential areas of concern. According to PayScale, financial analysts make an average base salary of $61,799 per year. Learn more about Financial Analyst Careers
- Benefits Specialist:
Benefits specialists administer a company or organization’s health plan, as well as ensure that all employees are properly informed about the associated benefits. They may also help select administrators of employee retirement plans and identify the most stable 401(k)s available. According to PayScale, benefits specialists make an average base salary of $98,205 per year.
- Certified Professional Accountant (CPA):
Certified Professional Accountants (CPAs) work with individual clients, corporations, and governments to handle important accounting processes including taxation, reporting, and auditing processes. They also regularly review financial information, prepare documentation, and ensure government regulations are followed. According to PayScale, CPAs make an average base salary of $51,723 per year.
- Accounts Payable / Accounts Receivable Specialist:
Accounts payable specialists must be familiar with every facet of a company’s accounting system. They are primarily responsible for validating, processing, and filing invoices. Additional tasks may include coding and paying bills, managing vendor expectations, reconciling financial statements, maintaining files, answering supplier questions, writing checks, and recording company transactions. According to PayScale, accounts payable specialists make an average base salary of $45,071 per year. Learn more about Accounts Payable Careers
Accountants are responsible for performing financial calculations for individuals, companies, and organization. Duties vary depending on the employment setting, but they often create cash flow reports, administer payroll, maintain balance sheets, perform various billing activities, keep inventory, and manage budgets. According to PayScale, accountants make an average base salary of $51,796 per year.
- Budget Analyst:
Budget analysts provide assistance and analysis during a business or organization’s budget-development process. Using past performance data, they ensure current and future budgets are effectively and efficiently allocate financial resources. These professionals also regularly present their findings to company management, executives, and other important team members. According to PayScale, budget analysts make an average base salary of $62,520 per year. Learn more about Budget Analyst Careers
Bookkeepers are responsible for ensuring that a company’s finances are kept under tight control. Using various accounting software, they track and record financial transactions and verify that financial decisions are viable and safe. These professionals also calculate, record, and balance payroll reports. According to PayScale, bookkeepers make an average base salary of $43,857 per year.
- Accounting Manager / Controller:
Accounting managers develop and implement systems that gather, analyze, verify, and report various types of financial information. They are generally one part of a larger team responsible for ensuring efficient data usage. In many cases, these professional also hire, train, and coach new hires. They may also be responsible for enforcing company policies, rules, and procedures related to finance. According to PayScale, accounting managers make an average base salary of $73,333 per year. Learn more about Managerial Accountants
- Accountants and Auditors. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
- Applying for the Uniform CPA Examination – Alaska. National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA)
- Accounting. University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA) College of Business and Public Policy
- Accounting Bachelor’s Degree Program. University of Fairbanks (UAF)