What is Accounting?
The accountancy profession is one of the oldest known to civilization. This makes becoming a CPA a highly sought after career choice. It forms the basis of commerce and much of mathematics, as well. These days, it's a fundamental part of any commercial or governmental organization. Nonprofits rely on accountants, too.
Accounting is a tool used by business owners to make informed decisions. It helps to manage the finances of a company, including taxation, profits, costs, and assets. Without accurate information, business owners and managers would not know which products or services to offer or how much money they should invest. These documents also help them determine the capital they need for future projects. Some examples of this information include budgets, selling prices, and standards for controlling operations.
Since a Certified Public Accountant is the very top of the profession, the state has an interest in ensuring that only the very best accountants carry that credential. Each state has its own guidelines to become a certified public accountant CPA, including Vermont. The state board of accountancy requires that CPA candidates meet the experience requirements. CPA candidates must obtain a degree in accounting, work experience, and pass the CPA exam. If you wish to become a CPA in Vermont, keep reading.
Accounting Education in Vermont
Education is the backbone of most any profession, and accountancy it is required for becoming a CPA. Vermont requires a minimum of 150 credit hours of college credit. Then you must validate your education by passing all four parts of one of the most difficult professional exams in the nation.
To fully satisfy the Board's requirements and for becoming a CPA, they ask that you complete 42 credit hours of accounting and business courses.
These hours must include a minimum of:
- Six hours in financial accounting
- Three semester hours studying auditing
- Three semesters studying United States income tax code
- Three hours studying business law
During your college years, you should attain a bachelor's degree with accounting as your major area of concentration if you are planning on becoming a CPA. Once you have graduated, you are likely to have credits remaining to attain. For those remaining 30 credit hours, you might consider advancing to the master's level.
To round out your education, consider the following business-related topics and courses:
- Computer science
- Organizational psychology
- Written and oral communication
- Information systems
- Human resources
- Actuarial sciences
The Vermont Board, not only wants to see a set quantity of credit hours, but they also need to see that your education was of a quality befitting the certified public accountant CPA license. The quality of your education is signed off on by accrediting agencies. Keep in mind that not all accrediting bodies are equal, and if you are planning on becoming a CPA the Board needs assurance from particular qualifying agencies.
You will be best served with an education approved by one of the following:
- Association of Advanced Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB)
- Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP)
- Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities
- North Central Association of Colleges and Schools
- Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools
- New England Association of Colleges and Schools
- Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
- Western Association of Schools and Colleges
If, on the other hand, if you want to become a certified public accountant CPA licensure process from Canada, your college or university must be part of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. If you received your education in some other country, you may still have your credits evaluated. The National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA) has evaluation services for foreign academic credit. If they verify your transcripts, and you have enough qualifying credits, the Board will likely accept this part of your application.
Associate Degree in Accounting (AA)
If you choose to start a career with a two-year associate degree, the field will soon open up. Professionals who start this way can get a real feel for how to conduct the rest of their education and career.
Bachelor's Degree in Accounting (BAcc)
A four-year baccalaureate degree is the most popular way that Vermont accountants use to launch a career. Bachelor’s degree programs offer more depth and detail than associate level programs, as well as courses in specialty areas.
Master's Degree in Accounting (MAcc)
This degree option is the best way to land a position in the c-suites. There are many online MS in Accountancy or MBA programs available for hardworking professionals.
PhD Degree in Accounting (PhD)
While not the most common choice for accounting professionals, a doctoral degree is highly respected. Further, many professionals use their PhDs to launch a second career in academia.
Online Degree in Accounting
These online programs are increasingly popular. Not only have they been proven to deliver the same outcomes as a traditional program, but they are often cheaper than on-campus options.
Vermont CPA Exam Requirements
The certified public accountant CPA exam is a four-part test that covers the breadth and depth of accountancy. It is an extremely difficult exam and many accountants base their entire careers around having passed just one portion. In order to take the CPA exam, the Vermont State Board of Public Accountancy requires that you have completed your educational requirements, or be within 60 days of doing so. If you are still in school, provide a Certificate of Enrollment to verify your status.
If the board grants you permission to take the CPA exam prior to completing your education, you must submit official transcripts within 120 days of taking the test. If you cannot submit transcripts within this window of time, you will forfeit any CPA exam credit you earned.
When you are ready to apply, you may do so using a form provided by the board, or found via the certified public accountant CPA Exam Services portion of NASBA. You should pay all fees, and submit your transcripts. Only official transcripts will suffice, so have these sent directly from your educational institution. You might also mail them yourself, but they should be in sealed envelopes from the school.
All application materials should be mailed to:
CPA Exam Services, Vermont Coordinator
P.O. Box 198469, Nashville, TN
Once your application is accepted, CPAES will send a Notice to Schedule. From this point, you must be aware that time is of the essence. You should contact your nearest Prometric testing site and schedule the first portion of the certified public accountant CPA exam. You can choose the order in which you take the four parts.
Here is a quick overview of the exam's four parts:
- Auditing and Attestation (AUD): 72 multiple-choice questions and 8 task-based simulations
- Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR): 66 multiple-choice questions and 8 simulations
- Business Environment and Concept (BEC): 62 multiple-choice questions, 4 simulations, and 3 written items
- Regulation (REG):76 multiple-choice questions and 8 task-based simulations
Continuing Professional Education (CPE) Requirements
To maintain your license, you will need to continue your education. Vermont asks that you complete a minimum of 80 CPE hours per each two-year licensure period. To complete this requirement, you should seek out CPE providers that meet the standards of the National Registry of CPE Sponsors. This registry is published and maintained by NASBA, so any provider therein will be appropriate.
While you can choose most any subject, it must be applicable to business and accounting.
The board recommends that you select such subjects as:
- Taxation issues
- Quantitative analysis
- Business law
- Human resources
Note that credit is given in whole-hour increments and each 50-minute period counts as one hour. Thus, if you spend 1.5 hours (90 minutes) in a classroom, you will only receive one CPE hour. However a 100-hour seminar will count as 2 CPE hours. When accounting for your hours, note that you may carry over up to 10 hours to the next licensure period.
You should also be sure to make a detailed accounting of your CPE hours. Keep a folder of all of your certificates, and even scan them and save them electronically. The board requires that you maintain these records for a minimum period of five years after completing any given course. For your records, make sure you know when it took place, the course title, who taught it, course duration, and any details about the subject matter.
Apart from the NASBA registry itself, you might discover CPE opportunities at colleges, universities, and national or regional conferences. There are also online courses and seminars that you can attend. Note that if you take courses for credit, you must maintain a record of successful completion. If you take college courses on a not-for-credit basis, you must have the instructor sign a statement to verify the hours you spent in the classroom.
After you become a certified public accountant, practicing and maintaining your profession will be a pleasure. After all, you are at the top of the business world. Congratulations on a job well done!
Become an Accountant in Vermont
Along with your academic learning, potential certified public accountant CPA licensees must also complete a period of experiential learning. The Board requires one full year of experience, 2,080 hours, working in accounting. You must work under a CPA licensed by a state board. During your tenure as an intern or employee in a public accountancy, you should gain practical public accounting experience that includes a variety of skills.
As you progress as an employee, make sure that you are accounting for all of your time. When you work on a specific skill set, make sure that you log the hours and note any specific details. This sort of self-reflection may be useful to you as a professional, but it will certainly help you verify your experience to the board. The more explicit your notes, the easier you can make things for your supervisor when she fills out the paperwork at the end of the experience portion of your licensure process.
At a minimum, you should gain experience with the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and one or more of the following:
- Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS)
- Standards Of Accounting And Review Services (SSARS)
- Standards for services on prospective financial information
- Financial projections
- Review internal control policies
- Compliance testing
- Plan, review, or revise auditing protocols
- Draft or review memoranda
- Financial analysis
If you work in non-public accountancy, you should exercise the following skills:
- Assess client's internal controls
- Tax return preparation and research
- Prepare financial statements
- Conduct cost accounting
- Demonstrate a working knowledge and understanding of the client's, or employer's industry, including key competitive factors
To verify your experience for the Board, you will need to submit the appropriate paperwork. The Board's website includes a Forms and Instructions page that includes the 6-page Report of Supervised Experience form. To ensure expediency, have your supervisor complete and submit this form in your final days of employment, or in the final days of your required tenure. That is, if you are leaving the firm or company, do so with all of your paperwork complete.
Getting Your CPA License in Vermont
Licensure in Vermont entails four basic elements: education, experience, ethics, and CPA exam. For each, you should conform to the specific standards set forth by the Vermont Board of Public Accountancy. Use this section as a checklist for your licensure process.
Vermont requires that you complete 150 credit hours. These hours should entail a bachelor's degree with a major concentration in accounting. Your transcript should reflect a total of 42 hours of coursework studying accounting and business-related subject matter.
For your accounting courses, you must include the following:
- Six hours in financial accounting
- Three semester hours studying auditing
- Three hours studying United States income tax code
- Three hours of business law
You should also take business-related courses that can include, but are not limited to:
- Computer science – including programming
- Information systems
- Human relations
- Economics – macro or micro
- Business ethics
Vermont requires that you complete one year, 2,080 hours, working in public, or non-public accounting.
During your tenure, you should diligently apply your academic knowledge, including:
- Financial Reporting
- Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
- Taxation and tax preparation
- Financial projections
- Cost accounting
- Compliance testing
- Assessment of auditing protocols
- Demonstrate knowledge of employer's industry – if in non-public accounting
In some states before becoming a CPA, you will need to fulfill an ethics exam. In Vermont, according to the boards of accountancy, you are not required to take an ethics exam before you sit for the CPA. You should complete an ethics course that covers the AICPA's Code of Conduct or the Vermont accountancy statutes. You can order a course through the AICPA's website and either take it online or have materials sent to your home. The course is self-study and includes an open-book examination.
The CPA exam might be the single hardest hurdle along the way. In fact, many people must retake one or more portions before they satisfactorily clear the obstacle. Nonetheless, with diligence and a solid study group, you can pass all four parts.
Careers for Accounting Graduates
- Environmental Accounting
This is a relatively new specialty area for accountants to pursue. In this position, accountants determine how their company can best take advantage of state or federal tax incentives for green technologies or initiatives. Thus, they might calculate how much a manufacturing company stands to benefit from solar power or geothermal initiatives.
- Forensic Accounting
When bad guys make money, accountants are on the case to sniff out how and where they launder their stolen goods. This field is the perfect blending of accountancy and law enforcement. These professionals can work with agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, local police, or even attorneys who are investigating civil litigants.
- Management Accounting & Consulting
What makes these accountants different is the fact that their audits are not reported to anyone outside of their employer or client. They are sort of like in-house financial detectives who seek out inefficiencies for their bosses. They might also take a specific look at the firm's supply chains, inventories, or payroll concerns.
- Government or Non-Profit Accounting
This is a popular field for students who graduate with debt. That's because federal student loan forgiveness applies to those who go to work for government agencies or non-profit organizations. Since different rules apply to NGOs and government agencies, it might be difficult to transition to the for-profit, private sector, but a rich career can be found for those who pursue this specialty.
Vermont Average Accountant Salary
Vermont may be a small, mostly rural state, but it offers great earnings potential for its accountants. In fact, two of the Big Four accounting firms have offices in Montpelier. CPAs might work for PricewaterhouseCoopers or KPMG without having to endure the hustle and bustle of New York City, Boston, or Chicago. The anticipated growth rate, 9 percent, may not be as stellar as some states, but that translates into 134 new accounting jobs per year. To ensure that you achieve the highest possible salary, work to attain a CPA license. CPAs in Vermont earn in the top 10 percent for their profession.
|City||Annual Median Wage|
|Entry Level||Mid Career||Late Career|
- Vermont Average Cost Estimator Salary: $65,000
- Vermont Average Auditor Salary: $50,100
- Vermont Average Budget Analyst Salary: $53,500
- Vermont Average Credit Analyst Salary: $55,700
- Vermont Average Financial Analyst Salary: $79,700
- Vermont Average Personal Financial Advisor Salary: $62,000
- Vermont Average Financial Examiner Salary: -
- Vermont Average Tax Examiner, Collector, or Revenue Agent Salary: -
- Vermont Average Tax Preparer Salary: -
- Vermont Average Actuary Salary: $123,000
- Vermont Average Forensic Science Technician Salary: -
- Vermont Average Payroll and Timekeeping Clerk Salary: -
Vermont Accounting Frequently Asked Questions
Are there any online accounting degree programs available for Vermont students?
Yes, there are numerous opportunities for Vermont students to pursue an accounting degree online. In fact, Northern Vermont University offers an online accounting degree program for students who need flexibility as well as academic excellence. Online education also opens up accounting degree programs nationwide for Vermont college students who would rather not leave home.
What sort of career paths can an accounting graduate pursue in Vermont?
Vermont students are free to pursue any sort of accounting specialty they choose. For those with an interest in the environment, environmental accounting is a growing field, but so is governmental and non-profit accounting. Still others might prefer the more traditional routes such as tax accounting, auditing, or management accounting.
Can I take the CPA exam in Vermont? What are the academic requirements to take the CPA test?
Yes, the CPA exam is available for ambitious Vermont accountants. To qualify to sit for the CPA exam, Vermont's Board of Accountancy requires that you earn a bachelor's degree and complete another 42 credit hours of advanced accounting coursework. The Board also requires that you complete an acceptable course in professional ethics. Note that the Board allows current students to begin taking the CPA exam when 60 or fewer days remain in their undergraduate coursework.
How much do accountants earn in Vermont? How many jobs are there?
Vermont accountants earn a healthy salary. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that their median income is $75,000. However, Vermont is a rather small state, so the accounting job market is necessarily tight. There are only 2,600 working accountants in the state but plenty of positions available in nearby states as well.