Can Colleges Make the COVID-19
Vaccine Mandatory?

colleges requiring COVID-19 vaccines

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In late 2019 the media began reporting on a mysterious illness that was taking lives in China. Before long, in March 2020, the entire world knew about the SARS-CoV-2, a variety of coronavirus that resulted in the disease we know as COVID-19. Since that time, the disease has taken the lives of millions worldwide, and nearly 700,000 in the United States alone. Among other effects, the pandemic has taken its toll on the psyche of those who have been isolated in lockdown and it has created a toxic political environment. Further, the pandemic has had a devastating impact on the global economy, which is still reeling with supply chain and other issues.

The rates of infection and death have thankfully diminished due to the rise of effective vaccines which can either completely thwart the virus or dramatically diminish its impact for the infected person, though they are not 100%. The pandemic is thus far from over, but the rise of these ground-breaking vaccines has certainly brought it under control in ways that weren't possible prior to their widespread adoption.

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The Development of the COVID-19 Vaccines


Once the COVID-19 pandemic became a reality, scientists, politicians, and public health officials scrambled for solutions. The disease was an existential threat to both individual and economic health, so the pressure to develop a vaccine was immense. Politicians were eager to have a vaccine as soon as possible, which posed an enormous challenge for scientists and the existing paths toward vaccine acceptance.

Thankfully, there was precedent for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. After all, it is a coronavirus, which was already familiar to scientists. In fact, the so-called common cold is a variety of coronavirus. However, the new variant posed unique challenges. Some researchers decided that they needed a way to tell the body how to recognize and respond to the virus' spike proteins, a new adaptation that allowed this novel virus to be more contagious than some previous coronaviruses . Normally they might produce mass quantities of the proteins and use them in the vaccination shots. Unfortunately, that would take entirely too long. Not only were people dying in huge numbers, but there were political and other forces urging for a fast solution.

Rather than attempt to produce the spike proteins on the scale needed, researchers decided to teach the body to recognize the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein using mRNA instructions, a new technique. Essentially, they tricked the body into creating the spike protein which would then trigger the immune system to fight it. This ingenious solution enabled pharmaceutical companies to bring the vaccinations up to scale and then roll them out for people all over the world in record time.

Mandatory Vaccinations


Vaccination has long been a necessary part of life. To attend school, students have been mandated to receive a battery of vaccinations in nearly every state in the US. Travelers are also familiar with mandated vaccination, as they are required when they wish to visit countries in Africa and elsewhere. Even colleges have required that students have up-to-date vaccinations for a range of communicable diseases that can wreak havoc on a college campus. Vaccination is also a routine part of the workaday world. Tradespeople, who are prone to injury on the job, are frequently required to receive a tetanus vaccine prior to working on a jobsite.

Due to mandatory vaccinations, many diseases have been contained and virtually eradicated. For instance, polio is all but unheard of in the United States. However, it is still prevalent throughout Africa, the Eastern Mediterranean, and even China, where healthcare systems are sometimes weak and anti-vaccination sentiment overrules safety measures.

Vaccine mandates date back to the 1850's, when Massachusetts schools began requiring smallpox vaccination for all students. The mandated vaccines were so effective that, within fifty years, half of all states adopted the same mandate. As the 20th century progressed, so did the march of vaccine mandates. New vaccines were developed, and new diseases arose which demanded treatment.

In the 1960's, measles was rampant. The disease was so prevalent that, prior to the vaccine, nearly every single child was infected with the virus at some point. Each year, the virus would claim up to 500 children, hospitalize 48,000, and cause encephalitis (swelling of the brain) in around 1,000. It took until 1963 for researchers to develop an effective solution to the constant infections. That vaccine was improved in 1968, and there has been no need for further development since the vaccine is so widely distributed. However, in 1989, there was a new outbreak of the disease, which prompted a new round of vaccination. The booster shot proved effective and the disease was finally considered eradicated from the United States in the year 2000.

Thanks to mandatory vaccinations, many other diseases have also been eradicated, or nearly eradicated, in the United States including polio, smallpox, rubella, pertussis, mumps, and more.

Current Standing for Vaccine Mandates


Vaccines for COVID-19 have, so far, proven to be incredibly effective. In areas where vaccine adoption has been dense, the disease is well in hand. Nevertheless, it continues to spread and mutate, and cities with high rates of vaccination are sometimes being flooded with ailing people from outside of their region. As a result, even those hospitals are reporting that ICU admissions are primarily for COVID-19 sufferers who have refused the vaccine. They also report that current death rates are heavily weighted towards those who are opposed to the vaccines and thus remain unvaccinated. Still, the rates of hospitalization and death are off the charts, and hospitals are, at times, having to refuse treatment to non-COVID patients in lieu of those who need immediate aid due to COVID.

In an effort to contain the deadly and debilitating disease, businesses and some governments have responded with vaccine mandates, just like those requiring students to get the measles vaccine to attend public school, college students to be tested for TB, etc. President Joe Biden has mandated vaccines for federal employees, federal contractors, and healthcare workers who work in facilities that receive federal funds. An additional 80 million US workers are also mandated to take the vaccine, though they can choose bi-weekly testing to ensure that they don’t bring COVID into the workplace.

So far, legal challenges to these mandates have failed. After all, employers are free to insist on vaccinations, dress codes, and other normative behaviors as a condition of employment, especially as at-will employment continues to be the norm. While some vaccine resistors can lay claim to religious exemptions, they need to make very strong arguments with factual support.

Colleges have also mandated vaccination for their students. However, these efforts are rather uneven. Since public universities are subject to the prevailing politics of the state, some colleges have required proof of vaccination, while others have not. Private colleges and universities are typically immune to these political inconsistencies and they are free to mandate the vaccine if they choose, though, in these cases, it’s up to the ruling body of the school.

As time goes on, it's believed by many that more institutions, including colleges and universities, will choose to insist on vaccination. After all, students are already mandated to receive vaccination for other diseases and, now that the FDA has granted full approval of a COVID vaccine option, there is less and less reason not to require vaccination for a disease which has killed hundreds of thousands in the US alone.

What This Means for Those Attending College


College students across the nation are at a collective crossroads, it seems. Some colleges and universities are mandating vaccination as a condition of enrollment, while others are not. Some state governments have gone so far as to forbid their publicly funded institutions of higher learning from mandating the public health measures.

Since the situation is still relatively new, there are many possible outcomes. Students on either side of the vaccine debate could bring lawsuits that challenge vaccination rules. Generally speaking, most of the legal challenges have come from those who refuse to take the vaccine. Their arguments usually rest on grounds that range from religious belief to quasi-scientific reasoning. Colleges and other institutions that do not mandate COVID-19 vaccines may someday find that so-called long COVID sufferers also have legal grounds to bring a suit if they feel that they were not protected by their educational institution. This is because those who have recovered from the disease sometimes have intense immune responses when exposed to the virus. They can incur symptoms that include organ damage, kidney stones, and long-COVID. If they were in an environment that mandated vaccines, they would not be at such high risk for these injuries. This may give more educational institutions pause as they consider the future outcomes of their students.

Essentially, COVID-19 is far from a settled issue. Since the disease and its treatment has been turned into a political football, state rules and mandates could change from election cycle to election cycle. There could be new court cases that overturn rules or strengthen them. Meanwhile, college students are in the middle, doing their best to receive an education that can help them succeed in life.

Thus, college students are urged to not only take a close and honest look at the vaccine issue, but to investigate the policies at their school. Prospective students in particular should include COVID-19 policies as part of their research into which school to attend, along with other factors such as accreditation. Not only should a college or university provide the degree programs they desire, but they should also be comfortable with the varying degrees of risk posed by the institution's vaccine policies.

Which Colleges Require the COVID-19 Vaccine?


Most colleges and universities already require vaccination for diseases such as mumps, rubella, tetanus, hepatitis, and more. Vaccination has also been a part of international travel for decades, so vaccines being important to travel is nothing new either. The COVID-19 vaccine does rely on relatively new medical technology, which has given some pause. It's thus important to review a range of sources to determine what course of action is best. You can also choose to take a vaccine that relies on older technology but can still offer protection. Be aware that many sources skew their reporting to suit a political agenda, which should be distinct from those that reflect the relevant scientific research.

Here is a list of colleges and universities by state that are requiring coronavirus vaccinations ((B) indicates requiring the booster shot. List of colleges is courtesy of University Business):

Alaska

  • University of Alaska-Anchorage

Alabama

  • Tuskegee University

    Faculty only:

  • University of Alabama
  • University of Alabama-Birmingham
  • University of Alabama-Huntsville

Arizona

  • Prescott College

    Faculty only:

  • Arizona State University
  • Dine College
  • Northern Arizona University
  • University of Arizona

California

  • Allen Hancock College
  • American Jewish University
  • American River College
  • Berkeley City College
  • Cabrillo College
  • California College of the Arts
  • California Institute of Integral Studies
  • California Institute of Technology
  • California Jazz Conservatory
  • California Lutheran University
  • California State University (B)
    • Maritime Academy
    • Cal Poly Humboldt
    • Cal Poly Pomona
    • San Joaquin Delta College
    • Cal Poly San Luis Obispo
  • Cerritos College
  • Cerro Coso College
  • Chabot College
  • Chapman University
  • Claremont McKenna College
  • Claremont Graduate University
  • Coast Community College District
  • Coastline College
  • College of Alameda
  • College of Marin
  • College of the Redwoods
  • Cosumnes River College
  • Cypress College
  • De Anza College
  • Delta College
  • Dominican University of California
  • Folsom Lake College
  • Foothill College
  • Fresno Pacific University
  • Fullerton College
  • Golden Gage University
  • Golden West College
  • Harvey Mudd College
  • Holy Names University
  • Laney College
  • La Sierra University
  • Los Angeles Community College District
  • Los Rios Community College District
  • Loyola Marymount University
  • Menlo College
  • Merritt College
  • MiraCosta College
  • Moreno Valley College
  • Norco College
  • North Orange County Community College District
  • Occidental College
  • Orange Coast College
  • Otis College of Art and Design
  • Pacific University (B)
  • Pepperdine University, Pitzer College (B)
  • Pomona College (B)
  • Porterville College
  • Riverside City College
  • Samuel Merritt University
  • Sacramento City College
  • San Diego Community College District
  • San Diego State University (B)
  • Santa Barbara City College
  • Santa Clara University
  • Santa Rosa Junior College
  • Scripps College
  • Southern California Institute of Architecture
  • Southwestern College
  • Stanford University (B)
  • State Center Community College District
  • University of California system (B)
  • University of La Verne
  • University of San Diego
  • University of Southern California (B)
  • Whitter College

    Faculty only:

  • Chabot College
  • Las Positas College

Colorado

  • Colorado College
  • Colorado School of Mines
  • Colorado State University system
  • Fort Lewis College
  • Metropolitan State University of Denver
  • Naropa University
  • Regis University
  • University of Denver
  • University of Colorado
  • University of Northern Colorado
  • Western Colorado University

Connecticut

  • Connecticut State Colleges and Universities
    • Asnuntuck Community College
    • Capital Community College
    • Central Connecticut State University
    • Charter Oak State College Online
    • Eastern Connecticut State University
    • Gateway Community College
    • Housatonic Community College
    • Manchester Community College
    • Middlesex Community College
    • Naugatuck Valley Community College
    • Northwestern CT Community College
    • Norwalk Community College in Norwalk
    • Quinebaug Valley Community College
    • Southern Connecticut State University
    • Three Rivers Community College
    • Norwich, Trinity College (B)
    • Community College
    • Western Connecticut State University
  • Connecticut College
  • Post University
  • Quinnipiac University
  • Sacred Heart University (B)
  • Trinity College
  • University of Connecticut
  • University of Hartford
  • University of New Haven
  • University of St. Joseph
  • Wesleyan University (B)
  • Yale University (B)

Delaware

  • University of Delaware (B)
  • Delaware State University
  • Goldey-Beacom College

Florida

    Faculty only:

  • Jacksonville University
  • Nova Southeastern University
  • Stetson University
  • University of Miami

Georgia

  • Clark Atlanta University
  • Emory University (B)
  • Morehouse College
  • Oxford College
  • Spelman College

    Faculty only:

  • Columbia Theological College
  • Georgia Tech University
  • Mercer University
  • University of Georgia

Hawall

  • BYU-Hawaii
  • University of Hawaii

Illinois

  • Adler University
  • American Academy of Art
  • Augustana College
  • Aurora University
  • Benedictine University
  • Bexley Hall Seabury Western Theological Seminary Federation
  • Black Hawk College
  • Blackburn College
  • Blessing Rieman College of Nursing and Health Sciences
  • Bradley University
  • Carl Sandburg College
  • Catholic Theological Union at Chicago
  • Chicago State University
  • City Colleges
    • Harold Washington College
    • Harry S. Truman College
    • Chicago-Kennedy-King College
    • Malcolm X College
    • Chicago-Olive-Harvey College
    • Richard Daley College
    • Chicago-Wilbur Wright College
  • College of DuPage
  • College of Lake County
  • College School of Professional Psychology
  • Columbia College
  • Concordia University at Chicago
  • Danville Area Community College
  • DePaul University
  • Dominican University
  • East-West University
  • Eastern Illinois University
  • Elgin Community College
  • Elmhurst University
  • Erikson Institute Knox College
  • Eureka College
  • Frontier Community College
  • Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary
  • Governors State University
  • Greenville University
  • Heartland Community College
  • Hebrew Theological College
  • Highland Community College
  • Illinois Central College
  • Illinois College
  • Illinois College of Optometry
  • Illinois Valley Community College
  • Illinois State University
  • Illinois Wesleyan University
  • Institute for Clinical Social Work
  • John Logan College
  • John Wood Community College
  • Joliet Junior College
  • Judson University
  • Kankakee Community College
  • Kaskaskia College
  • Kishwaukee College
  • Lake Forest College
  • Lake Forest Graduate School of Management
  • Lake Land College
  • Lakeview College of Nursing
  • Lewis and Clark Community College
  • Lewis University
  • Lincoln Christian University
  • Lincoln College
  • Lincoln College of Technology at Melrose Park
  • Lincoln Land Community College
  • Lincoln Trail College
  • Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago
  • Loyola University Chicago (B)
  • MacCormac College
  • McCormick Theological Seminary
  • McHenry County College
  • McKendree University
  • Meadville Lombard Theological Seminary
  • Methodist College
  • Midwestern University at Downers Grove
  • Millikin University
  • Monmouth College
  • Moody Bible Institute
  • Moraine Valley Community College
  • Morrison Institute of Technology
  • Morton College
  • National Louis University
  • National University of Health Sciences
  • North Central College
  • North Park University
  • Northeastern Illinois University
  • North Baptist Theological Seminary
  • Northern Illinois University
  • Northwestern University (B)
  • Oakton Community College
  • Olivet Nazarene University
  • Olney Central College
  • Parkland College
  • Prairie State College
  • Quincy University
  • Rend Lake College
  • Resurrection University
  • Richland Community College
  • River Parishes Community College
  • Rock Valley College
  • Rockford University
  • Roosevelt University
  • Rush University
  • Saint Anthony College of Nursing
  • Saint Augustine College
  • Saint Francis Medical Center of College Nursing
  • Saint Xavier University
  • Sauk Valley Community College
  • School of the Art Institute of Chicago
  • Shawnee Community College
  • South Suburban College
  • Southeastern Illinois College
  • Southern Illinois University (Carbondale, Edwardsville)
  • Southwestern Illinois College
  • Spertus College
  • Spoon River College
  • Telshe Yeshiva at Chicago
  • Trinity Christian College
  • Trinity College of Nursing and Health Sciences
  • Trinity International University
  • Triton College, University of Chicago (B)
  • University of Illinois
  • University of Saint Mary of the Lake
  • Vandercook College of Music
  • Wabash Valley College
  • Waubonsee Community College
  • Western Illinois University
  • Wheaton College
  • William Rainey Harper College

Indiana

  • Butler University
  • DePauw University
  • Goshen College (with FDA approval)
  • Holy Cross College
  • Indiana University
    • IU-Purdue University Columbus
    • IU-Purdue University Indianapolis
  • St. Mary’s College
  • University of Notre Dame (B)
  • Valparaiso University

Lowa

  • Grinnell College
  • Highline College

Kentucky

  • Bellarmine College
  • Berea College
  • Centre College
  • Transylvania University

Louisiana

  • Bossier Parish Community College
  • Central Louisiana Technical Community College
  • Delgado Community College
  • Dillard University
  • Fletcher Technical Community College
  • Louisiana Community and Technical College system
  • Louisiana Delta Community College
  • Louisiana State University
  • Louisiana Tech University
  • Loyola University of New Orleans
  • Nicholls State University
  • Northwest Louisiana Technical Community College
  • Northwestern State University
  • Nunez Community College
  • Tulane University
  • University of Louisiana system
    • Northwestern State
    • South Louisiana Community College
    • Southeastern Louisiana University
    • Southern University system
    • Sowela Technical Community College
    • University of Louisiana at Lafayette
    • University of Louisiana at Monroe
    • University of New Orleans
  • Xavier University

Maine

  • Bates College (B)
  • Bowdoin College (B)
  • Central Maine Community College
  • Colby College (B)
  • College of the Atlantic
  • Eastern Maine Community College
  • Husson University
  • Kennebec Valley Community College
  • Maine Community College system
  • Maine Maritime Academy
  • Northern Maine CC
  • Saint Joseph’s College (B)
  • Southern Maine Community College
  • Thomas College
  • Unity College
  • University of Maine system
  • University of New England (B)
  • University of Southern Maine

Maryland

  • Bowie State University
  • Coppin State University
  • Frostburg State University
  • Hood College
  • Johns Hopkins University (B)
  • Loyola Maryland University
  • McDaniel College
  • Morgan State University
  • Mount St. Mary’s University
  • Salisbury University
  • St. John’s College at Annapolis
  • Towson University
  • University of Baltimore
  • University of Maryland
    • College Park
  • Washington Adventist University
  • Washington College

Massachusetts

  • Alvernia University
  • American International College
  • Amherst College
  • Anna Maria College
  • Assumption University
  • Babson College
  • Bay Path University
  • Bentley University
  • Berklee College of Music
  • Boston College (B)
  • Boston University
  • Brandeis University (B)
  • Bridgewater State University (B)
  • Cambridge College
  • Clark University (B)
  • College of the Holy Cross
  • Curry College
  • Dean College
  • Elms College
  • Emerson College (B)
  • Emmanuel College
  • Evergreen State College
  • Fitchburg State University (B)
  • Framingham State University (B)
  • Hampshire College (B)
  • Harvard University (B)
  • Lasell University
  • Lesley University
  • Massachusetts College of Art & Design (B)
  • Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts (B)
  • Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences
  • MIT
  • Massachusetts Maritime Academy
  • Mount Holyoke University
  • New England Conservatory of Music
  • Northeastern University (B)
  • Olin College of Engineering
  • Salem State University (B)
  • Simmons University
  • Smith College (B)
  • Springfield College
  • Stonehill College
  • Suffolk University (B)
  • Tufts University (B)
  • University of Massachusetts
    • Westfield State University (B)
    • Wheaton College (B)
    • William James College
    • Williams College (B)
    • Worcester Polytechnic Institute (B)
    • Worcester State University (B)

Michigan

  • Albion College
  • Central Michigan University (B)
  • College for Creative Studies
  • Grand Valley State University
  • Kalamazoo College
  • Lawrence Technological University
  • Michigan State University (B)
  • Oakland University
  • University of Michigan (B)
  • Wayne State University (B)

    Faculty only:

  • Michigan Tech

Minnesota

  • Carleton College (B)
  • College of St. Benedict
  • Gustavus Adolphus College
  • Hamline University
  • Macalester College
  • Minnesota College of Art and Design
  • Mitchell Hamline School of Law
  • St. Catherine University
  • St. Cloud State University
  • St. John’s University
  • St. Olaf College (B)
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of St. Thomas

Missouri

  • Culver Stockton College
  • Rockhurst University
  • William Jewell College
  • Saint Louis University (B)
  • Washington University

Nebraska

  • Creighton University
  • Doane University
  • Nebraska Wesleyan University

Nevada

  • College of Southern Nevada
  • Great Basin College
  • Nevada State College
  • Touro University Nevada
  • Truckee Meadows Community College
  • University of Nevada-Las Vegas
  • University of Nevada-Reno
  • Western Nevada College

New-Hampshire

  • Colby-Sawyer College
  • Dartmouth College (B)
  • Franklin Pierce University
  • New England College
  • Rivier University
  • Southern New Hampshire University
  • St. Anselm College

    Faculty only:

  • University of New Hampshire

New Jersey

  • Caldwell University
  • Drew University
  • Essex County College
  • Fairleigh Dickinson University
  • Kean University
  • Monmouth University
  • Montclair State University
  • Mount St. Mary’s University
  • New Jersey City University
  • New Jersey Institute of Technology
  • Princeton University (B)
  • Ramapo College of New Jersey
  • Rider University
  • Rowan University
  • Rutgers University
  • Saint Peter’s University (B)
  • Stevens Institute of Technology (B)
  • Stockton University
  • William Paterson University

New Mexico

  • Central New Mexico Community College
  • New Mexico Highlands University
  • St. John’s College at Santa Fe
  • University of New Mexico (B)

    Faculty only:

  • New Mexico State University

New York

  • Adelphi University
  • Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences
  • Albany Law School
  • Alfred University
  • Bank Street College of Education
  • Barnard College
  • Canisius University
  • Cazenovia College (B)
  • Clarkson University
  • Colgate University
  • College of Mount Saint Vincent
  • College of Saint Rose
  • Columbia University (B)
  • Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art
  • Cornell University
  • Culinary Institute of America
  • Dominican College of Blauvelt
  • Elmira College
  • Five Towns College
  • Fordham University (B)
  • Glasgow Caledonian New York College
  • Hamilton College
  • Hartwick College
  • Hilbert College
  • Hobart and William Smith Colleges
  • Hofstra University (B)
  • Ithaca College
  • Jewish Theological Seminary of America
  • Keuka College
  • Le Moyne College (B)
  • Manhattan College
  • Manhattan School of Music
  • Manhattanville College
  • Maria College of Albany
  • Marist College (B)
  • Marymount Manhattan College
  • Molloy College
  • Mount St. Mary College
  • Nazareth College
  • New York University (B)
  • Niagara University
  • Pace University
  • Pratt Institute
  • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (B)
  • Rochester Institute of Technology
  • Russell Sage College (B)
  • Sarah Lawrence College
  • Siena College
  • Skidmore College
  • St. Bonaventure University
  • St. John Fisher College
  • St. John’s University
  • St. Joseph’s College
  • St. Lawrence University (B)
  • Syracuse University (B)
  • The New School
  • Touro College
  • Trocaire College
  • Union College (B)
  • University of Rochester (B)
  • Utica College
  • Vassar College (B)
  • Wagner College
  • Wells College
  • City University of New York
    • Baruch College
    • Borough of Manhattan CC
    • Bronx CC
    • Brooklyn College
    • College of Staten Island
    • Newmark Graduate School of Journalism
    • Graduate Center
    • Graduate School of Public Health and Policy
    • School of Labor and Urban Studies
    • School of Law
    • School of Professional Studies
    • Guttman CC
    • Hostos CC
    • Hunter College
    • John Jay College of Criminal Justice
    • Kingsborough CC
    • LaGuardia CC
    • Lehman College
    • Macaulay Honors College
    • Medgar Evers College
    • New York City College of Technology
    • Queens College
    • Queensborough Community College
    • City College of New York
    • York College
  • State University of New York
    • University at Albany
    • Alfred State University
    • Binghamton University (B)
    • University at Buffalo
    • Cayuga CC
    • Clinton CC
    • Columbia Greene CC
    • Cornell University
      • NY State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
      • College of Human Ecology
    • College of Environmental Science and Forestry
    • Farmingdale State College
    • Fashion Institute of Technology
    • Finger Lakes CC
    • Fulton-Montgomery CC
    • Hudson Valley CC
    • Mohawk Valley CC
    • Niagara County CC
    • North Country CC
    • College of Optometry
    • Purchase College
    • Stony Brook University
    • Suffolk County CC
    • Polytechnic Institute
    • Tompkins Cortland CC
    • Upstate Medical University

North Carolina

  • Bennett College
  • Brevard College
  • Davidson College (B)
  • Duke University (B)
  • Elon University
  • Guilford College
  • Johnson C. Smith University
  • Lees-McRae College
  • Lenoir-Rhyne University
  • Livingstone College
  • Meredith College
  • Methodist University
  • Queens University (B)
  • Salem College
  • Shaw University
  • Union Presbysterian Seminary-Charlotte
  • Wake Forest University (B)
  • Warren Wilson College

    Faculty only:

  • East Carolina State University
  • University of North Carolina
  • North Carolina State University

Oklahoma

  • Southwest Christian University

    Faculty only:

  • Oklahoma State University
  • Oklahoma University
  • University of Tulsa

Ohio

  • Antioch College
  • Bowling Green State University
  • Capital University
  • Case Western Reserve University
  • Cleveland Institute of Art
  • Cleveland State University
  • Columbus College of Art and Design
  • John Carroll University
  • Kent State University
  • Kenyon College
  • Miami University
  • Mt. St. Joseph University
  • Oberlin College and Conservatory
  • Ohio Dominican University
  • Ohio University
  • Ohio Wesleyan University
  • Otterbein University
  • The College of Wooster
  • The Ohio State University
  • University of Akron
  • University of Cincinnati
  • University of Toledo
  • Xavier University

Oregon

  • Central Oregon Community College
  • Eastern Oregon University
  • Lewis & Clark University
  • Linfield University
  • Oregon Health and Science University
  • Oregon Institute of Technology
  • Oregon State University (B)
  • Pacific University
  • Portland State University
  • University of Oregon (B)
  • University of Portland
  • Southern Oregon University
  • Western Oregon University
  • Willamette University

Pennsylvania

  • Allegheny College
  • Bryn Athyn College of the New Church
  • Bryn Mawr College
  • Bucknell University (B)
  • Cabrini University
  • Carnegie Mellon University (B)
  • Chatham University
  • Chestnut Hill College
  • Community College of Philadelphia
  • Dickinson College
  • Drexel University (B)
  • Duquesne University
  • Franklin & Marshall College
  • Gettysburg University
  • Haverford College
  • Holy Family University
  • Immaculata University
  • Lafayette College (B)
  • La Salle University
  • Lehigh University (B)
  • Mercyhurst University
  • Muhlenberg College (B)
  • Neumann University
  • Point Park University
  • Rosemont College
  • St. Joseph’s University
  • Susquehanna University
  • Swarthmore College
  • Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology
  • Thomas Jefferson University
  • University of the Arts
  • University of Pennsylvania (B)
  • University of Pittsburgh
  • University of the Sciences
  • University of Scranton
  • Ursinus College
  • Villanova University
  • Washington & Jefferson College
  • Widener University
  • Williamson College of the Trades

    Faculty only:

  • Penn State University

Rhode Island

  • Brown University (B)
  • Bryant University
  • Community College of Rhode Island
  • Johnson & Wales University (B)
  • New England Institute of Technology
  • Providence College (B)
  • Rhode Island College
  • Rhode Island School of Design
  • Roger Williams University (B)
  • Salve Regina University (B)
  • University of Rhode Island (B)

South Carolina

  • Claflin University
  • Furman University
  • Wofford College

Tennessee

  • Christian Brothers University
  • Maryville College
  • Rhodes College
  • University of the South
  • Vanderbilt University

Texas

  • Huston-Tillotson University
  • Paul Quinn College
  • Rice University (B)
  • Southwestern University
  • St. Edward’s University

Utha

  • Davis Technical College
  • University of Utah
  • Utah Valley University
  • Utah State University
  • Weber State University
  • Westminster College

Vermont

  • Bennington College
  • Castleton University
  • Champlain College
  • Middlebury College
  • St. Michael’s College (B)
  • University of Vermont (B)
  • Northern Vermont University
  • Norwich University
  • Vermont School of Law
  • Vermont Technical College

Virginia

  • Bridgewater College
  • Christopher Newport University
  • College of William & Mary
  • Eastern Mennonite University
  • George Mason University
  • Hampton University
  • Hollins University
  • James Madison University
  • Mary Baldwin University
  • Marymount University (B)
  • Norfolk State University (B)
  • Radford University
  • Randolph College
  • Randolph-Macon College
  • Roanoke College
  • Sweet Briar College
  • Union Presbyterian Seminary
  • University of Lynchburg
  • University of Richmond
  • University of Virginia (B)
  • Virginia Commonwealth University (B)
  • Virginia Military Institute
  • Virginia State University (B)
  • Virginia Tech University (B)
  • Virginia Union University
  • Virginia Wesleyan University
  • Washington & Lee University

Washington

  • Central Washington University
  • Columbia Basin College
  • Cornish College of the Arts
  • Eastern Washington University
  • Evergreen State College
  • Gonzaga University
  • Highline College
  • Lake Washington Institute of Technology
  • Pacific Lutheran
  • Peninsula College
  • St. Martin’s University
  • Seattle Colleges
  • Seattle Central College
  • Seattle School of Theology and Psychology
  • Seattle University
  • Seattle Pacific University
  • Skagit Valley College
  • Shoreline Community College
  • South Seattle College
  • Tacoma Community College
  • University of Puget Sound
  • University of Washington
  • Washington State University
  • Wenatchee Valley College
  • Western Washington University
  • Whitman College (B)
  • Whitworth University

    Faculty only:

  • Antioch University at Seattle
  • Bastyr University
  • Bates Technical College
  • Bellevue College
  • Bellingham Technical College
  • Big Bend Community College
  • Cascadia College
  • Centralia College
  • City University of Seattle
  • Clark College
  • Clover Park Technical College
  • Columbia Basin College
  • Cornish College of the Arts
  • Edmonds Community College
  • Faith International University
  • Grays Harbor College
  • Green River College
  • Heritage University
  • Lower Columbia College
  • Northwest Indian College
  • Northwest University
  • Olympic College
  • Perry Technical Institute
  • Pierce College
  • Renton Technical College
  • Seattle School of Theology and Psychology
  • Skagit Valley College
  • Shoreline Community College
  • South Puget Sound Community College
  • Spokane Community College
  • Spokane Falls Community College
  • Walla Walla University
  • Washington State University
  • Wenatchee Valley College
  • Western Washington University
  • Whatcom Community College
  • Yakima Valley College

Washington D.C.

  • American University (B)
  • Gallaudet University
  • George Washington University (B)
  • Georgetown University (B)
  • Trinity Washington University
  • University of the District of Columbia

West Virginia

  • Bethany College
  • University of Charleston

Wisconsin

  • Alverno College
  • Beloit College
  • Carthage College
  • Lawrence University
  • Marquette University